Vírus Zika: Emergência de um Velho Conhecido

Autores

  • Pedro Brogueira Serviço de Infecciologia e Medicina Tropical - Hospital de Egas Moniz - Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, E.P.E., Lisboa, Portugal
  • Ana Cláudia Miranda Serviço de Infecciologia e Medicina Tropical - Hospital de Egas Moniz - Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Ocidental, E.P.E., Lisboa, Portugal

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24950/rspmi.746

Palavras-chave:

Infecção pelo Vírus Zika, Pandemias, Vírus Zika

Resumo

O vírus Zika foi descoberto há setenta anos, no Uganda,
sendo a primeira infecção em humanos reportada em 1952,
na Nigéria. O vírus foi sendo responsável por casos de infecção
esporádicos em África e na Ásia. Em 2007 acontece
a primeira epidemia por este vírus, numa ilha do Pacífico,
que atingiu cerca de três quartos da população e onde se
verificou um curso benigno e autolimitado da infecção. Seis
anos mais tarde ocorre uma epidemia sem precedentes na
Polinésia Francesa, entre 2013 e 2014, onde é descrita pela
primeira vez a síndroma de Guillain-Barré como complicação
associada à infecção. Nesta altura estima-se que o vírus
tenha sido introduzido no Brasil onde, no final de 2015, foi
verificada a associação entre microcefalia e a infecção por
vírus Zika cuja evidência, bem como de outras malformações
fetais, os estudos têm vindo a comprovar.
Actualmente verifica-se transmissão autóctone em mais
de setenta países, através da transmissão vectorial por mosquitos
do género Aedes. A transmissão da infecção por via
sexual foi documentada em vários países com casos importados,
contudo, não é conhecido o seu real contributo na actual
pandemia devido à dificuldade em se determinar a sua
ocorrência nos países onde ocorre transmissão vectorial.
A estratégia na prevenção da infecção e da sua disseminação
passa, actualmente, por medidas ambientais de controlo
de vectores e de protecção individual.

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Publicado

30-06-2017

Como Citar

1.
Brogueira P, Miranda AC. Vírus Zika: Emergência de um Velho Conhecido. RPMI [Internet]. 30 de Junho de 2017 [citado 7 de Dezembro de 2022];24(2):146-53. Disponível em: https://revista.spmi.pt/index.php/rpmi/article/view/746

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