O Impacto da Dieta Vegetariana no Risco Cardiovascular

Autores

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24950/Revisao/66/19/1/2020

Palavras-chave:

Dieta Vegetariana, Doenças Cardiovasculares, Fatores de Risco, Vegetarianos

Resumo

Introdução: A doença cardiovascular é uma causa major de morbimortalidade, pelo que otimizar a sua prevenção e gestão continua a ser uma prioridade. Este artigo de revisão tem em vista providenciar uma análise crítica dos aspetos positivos e negativos acarretados por uma dieta vegetariana no risco cardiovascular.

Resultados: Em geral, a população vegetariana apresenta melhor perfil cardiovascular, com valores mais adequados de índice de massa corporal, perfil lipídico e superior controlo tensional e glicémico. Novos mecanismos aterogénicos parecem ser também influenciados como a remoção dos remanescentes de quilomicrons da circulação, o estado inflamatório e oxidativo e a microbiota intestinal. Adicionalmente, métodos de imagem demonstraram características estruturais e funcionais vasculares mais favoráveis em vegetarianos. No entanto, uma dieta vegetariana desequilibrada pode conduzir a défices nutricionais. Estes podem ser facilmente ultrapassados através de um plano nutricional completo e variado, e eventualmente recorrendo a suplementos e alimentos fortificados. Acima de tudo, um efeito benéfico do vegetarianismo estará sempre associado a uma dieta vegetariana equilibrada, com base em alimentos saudáveis, e escassez de produtos alimentícios processados, açúcares refinados e gorduras trans.

Conclusão: A dieta vegetariana resulta em impactos positivos em vários fatores de risco cardiovascular independentes. Apesar do desafio acrescido em obter macro e micronutrientes necessários que possam estar menos disponíveis em alimentos de origem vegetal, o seu défice pode ser evitado através de uma dieta planeada, alicerçada em alimentos naturais e saudáveis. Havendo noção das suas limitações e tomadas as devidas providências, uma dieta vegetariana pode ser utilizada eficientemente contra a doença cardiovascular.

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08-12-2021

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Lé AM, Leite L, Gonçalves L. O Impacto da Dieta Vegetariana no Risco Cardiovascular. RPMI [Internet]. 8 de Dezembro de 2021 [citado 18 de Agosto de 2022];27(1):39-48. Disponível em: https://revista.spmi.pt/index.php/rpmi/article/view/186

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