Hipernatremia: uma revisão

Autores

  • Cristina Pinto de Abreu Nefrologista, Assistente eventual de Nefrologia no Hospital de Santa Maria

Palavras-chave:

desidratação, diabetes insípida, hipernatrémia, hormona antidiurética

Resumo

A conservação renal de água e a sede constituem os dois mecanismos essenciais no combate da hipernatremia. Nos indivíduos não hospitalizados, a hipernatremia ocorre sobretudo nos idosos, resultante mais frequentemente da desidratação que as infecções acarretam. Em doentes hospitalizados, surge por errada administração de soros em indivíduos com alteração do estado de consciência, ou incapacidade de aceder à água. Em resposta à hipernatremia, o cérebro desencadeia uma série de mecanismos destinados a evitar a desidratação neuronal. Ao rápido up-take de electrólitos, segue-se uma fase mais lenta, de acumulação de osmolitos orgânicos. O tratamento da hipernatremia passa pela infusão de líquidos, em que a velocidade de infusão, a ocorrer de forma segura, será ditada pela taxa de remoção dos referidos solutos. A mortalidade varia entre 40 a 60%.

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Publicado

28-06-2002

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1.
Pinto de Abreu C. Hipernatremia: uma revisão. RPMI [Internet]. 28 de Junho de 2002 [citado 23 de Julho de 2024];9(2):100-1. Disponível em: https://revista.spmi.pt/index.php/rpmi/article/view/1938

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